civil aviation requirements  

Without Standards and Recommended Practices in civil aviation, our air transport system will be at best chaotic and at worst unsafe. General aviation. Moreover, let’s see some points which helps you a better understanding of ICAO objectives, which includes: Standardization in civil aviation is made possible by ICAO. ICAO sets the standards and regulations necessary for aviation safety, security, efficiency, and regularity, as well as for aviation environmental protection. The class marks are currently being introduced, so your drone or model aircraft may not have been given a class when it was made. News; Picture Gallery; Slider; test; Video Gallery; ... Drone Requirements Read More . The space below is provided to keep a … It is a specialized agency of the United Nations. This is made possible by the ICAO which develops best practices and regulations for international air transport. civil aviation requirements Air India, Vistara begin transport of Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin This is the second day of vaccine transport with airlines starting transporting Covid-19 vaccines across the country from Serum Institute, Pune, on Tuesday ahead of … Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Yes ! The objectives of the ICAO is very clear in order to keep the aviation standard up and maintain aviation safety. Registration requirements for drones and model aircraft. Safety Plans . EUROCONTROL has prepared a short summary offering an overview of a significant series of avionics requirements and their applicability to both Civil and State aircraft. It is important to note that the information in these tables relates, unless otherwise stated, to the airspace or airworthiness requirements of the States of the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC). ); Meanwhile, the Central Government published the draft Unmanned Aircraft System Rules, 2020 (“Drone Rules”) for public and stakeholder comments. THE CIVIL AVIATION (INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT) REGULATIONS, 2008 PART I – PRELIMINARY Citation. SARPs cover all technical and operational aspects of international civil aviation, such as safety, personnel licensing, operation of aircraft, aerodromes, air traffic services, accident & incident investigation, and environmental protection. Before I talk about the necessity of standards in civil aviation, it is very important to understand about the word “Standard” before it’s a requirement, importance, and compliance in civil aviation. Why it is most important and its really required in the aviation industry. Information for passengers, holidaymakers and the aviation industry. 1). The intention is to list key Avionics requirements … Civil Aviation Requirements for Safety Management (CAR 19) April, 2019 P a g e | III ABBREVIATIONS ADREP Accident/incident data reporting AIS Aeronautical information services ATS Air traffic services CAAN Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal CAR Civil Aviation Requirement CASRD Civil Aviation Safety Regulation Directorate CE Critical Element CNS Communications, navigation and surveillance Aviation Quality Assurance | Quality Control in Aviation, Continuing Airworthiness of Aircraft [Things To Know], How To Prevent Inadvertent Slide Deployment, The role of an Aircraft Maintenance Engineer, An easy way to understand Aircraft Electrical System. No Objection Certificate Read More . For category B1, B2 or B3 the additional experience of civil aircraft maintenance should be a minimum of twelve (12) months. They set the formation of the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization). Here, I’m going to share the real necessity of standards in civil aviation which encourage the safety and quality matters pertaining to aviation and also tell who is the leading organization in international civil aviation, how they work on to keep civil aviation standards up. ICAO is made up of an Assembly, according to the terms of the Convention and The Assembly, composed of representatives from all Contracting States. Commercial aviation is the safest and fastest form of transportation in the world. Encourage the arts of aircraft design and operations for peaceful purposes. The Belize Department of Civil Aviation was established by the Civil Aviation Act, Chapter 239, Revised Edition 2000 of the Substantive Laws of Belize. EASA supports its Member States in implementing the ICAO standards. For security oversight, it is carried out under the Universal Security Audit Programme (USAP). The Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand and Aviation Security Service keep New Zealand skies safe and secure. All aircraft operations control by air traffic control, airport authorities, and pilots. Now Standard is up, then what next! The 54 nations that attended the civil aviation conference in Chicago from November 1 to December 7 in 1944, also called the Chicago Convention. The Civil Aviation Safety Authority is a government body that regulates Australian aviation safety. It creates and supports a large number of employments around the world. Thes e Regulations may be cited as the Civil Aviation (Instruments and Equipment) Regulations, 2008. Why Choose CAE . Civil aviation includes two major categories: Scheduled air transport, including all passenger and cargo flights operating on regularly scheduled routes; and Genera When working on an aircraft or aircraft component you should always refer to the relevant aircraft maintenance manual or component manufacturer’s manual. All other relevant authorities and organization works with ICAO. ICAO serves as a forum for cooperation in all fields of civil aviation among its Member States. These standards are adopted by EASA regulation and operators registered in ECAC must be compliant. The future evolution of avionics is also addressed, with links to appropriate programmes, initiatives and specialist web sub-sites. Recently, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (“DGCA”), granted permission to over 10 companies for testing their drones beyond the visual line of sight for drone delivery services. Whereas the annexed Interim Order Respecting Certain Requirements for Civil Aviation Due to COVID-19, No. We aim to provide the best aircraft maintenance practices, technology, and aviation safety tips. However, USAP results are confidential and are not made public. Read our full, Air navigation services performance review, Communications, navigation and surveillance, Digitalisation and information management, Our member and comprehensive agreement states, New Approach Standardisation in the Internal Market, Joint Aviation Authorities Training Organisation, EUROCONTROL's privacy and data protection policy. Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military aviation, both private and commercial. The Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) is the national regulatory body for civil aviation under the Ministry of Civil Aviation. To order printed copies call 0800 GET RULES (0800 438 785), or order online at vertia.co.nz (external link). For health and safety at the workplace, you should follow the rules and guidelines specified by your company, equipment manufacturer and the National Safety Authority. (1) For category A; the additional experience of civil aircraft maintenance should be a minimum of six (6) months. Civil Aviation Order 20.18 (Aircraft equipment — basic operational requirements) Instrument 2014 (as amended)made under regulations 207 and 232A of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 and subsection 33 (3) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901.. It sets the international civil aviation Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) and policies to support efficient, safe, secure, and economically sustainable civil aviation sector worldwide. Hope you enjoyed reading. ICAO is the overall leader of all state government aviation authorities. Avoid discrimination between contracting states. OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING The training course in the field of aircraft maintenance engineering is designed to give the students the following essentials, to enable them to pass the AME licence examination conducted by DGCA. If a State elects to waive the ICAO Annex 6 standards, a ‘Difference’ must be notified to ICAO, which will be made known to the other States. Flight Clearance Read More . Civil Aviation Department Homepage, HKCAD, CAD, Airport Standards, Air Traffic Management, Flight Standards and Airworthiness, Air Traffic Engineering and Standards, Aeronautical Information, Aircraft Let me know if there are some other factors that are necessary to maintain the standards in civil aviation. It is important to note that the information in these tables relates, unless otherwise stated, to the airspace or airworthiness requirements of the States of the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC). ICAO is the only world’s leader in international civil aviation which creates regulations for aviation safety, security, efficiency and regularity, and environmental protection. ... in the country your training program takes place in. The government of India is planning to replace the organisation with a Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), modelled on the lines of the American Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). AMC CAR 66.30(e) Basic Experience Requirements. Aviation accidents cause a very serious impact on any organization, airport, and country economy. To view the official signed amendments, see “History of amendments” within each section. Although this overview is mainly for information purposes only, it captures useful information that may increase awareness on how Civil and State aircraft are impacted by the introduction of specific capabilities. EASA is an agency of the European Union, responsible for civil aviation safety and standardization. ICAO developed a universally accepted standard known as Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs). Our Pilot Training Programmes . Most of the countries in the world are members of the International Civil Aviation Organization and work together to establish common standards and recommended practices for civil aviation through that agency. NAA is an aviation regulator for any country that works to implement and maintain the standards set by the ICAO. The Civil Aviation have posted a list of requirements for passengers that are flying in and out of Kuwait. This directorate investigates aviation accidents and incidents. Visit the individual training programme page to see the specific requirements of your programme of interest. It makes regulations and performs investigation and monitoring. These results are only shared with the other member states through suitably confidential means. Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) are contained in 19 Annexes for each area of ICAO responsibility. Ensuring the highest standards. 1. The Minister of Civil Aviation is the nodal ministry that is responsible for the formulation and implementation of national policies and programmes for development and regulation of civil aviation in India as well as for devising and implementing schemes for the orderly growth and expansion of civil … ICAO is the overall leader of all state government aviation authorities. The civil aviation authorities of state always do audits of concern organizations to keep these standards up. Protecting passengers and the public. Hope you enjoyed reading. Where a system requirement is not mandated in ECAC airspace, its application is determined by the worldwide ICAO Annex 6 standards. Each Annex deals with a particular subject area. These include stringent physical and mental requirements, including visual and hearing standards are to be satisfied. (Civil aviation is distinguished from military aviation.) Our team at AviationHunt is a group of aviation experts and enthusiasts. We license pilots, register aircraft and oversee safety. To ensure safe and growth of international civil aviation throughout the world. ICAO is United Nationa's (UN) aviation arm. Therefore standardization is very necessary for a healthy and growing air transport system. The UK's specialist aviation regulator COVID-19. Standards in Civil Aviation is very necessary in order to make safe air transportation. ICAO is an organization represented by the airport authorities. Check them out below: Departing Passengers • Must register in the application (Kuwait Mosafer) and submit the relevant barcode throughout the phases of travel. We apply our internal data protection rules, which are aligned with the General Data Protection Regulation, to all of our data-processing. Above all, most importantly, twenty-four hours a day, 365 days of the year, an aeroplane takes off or lands every few seconds somewhere on the earth. Promote the safety of flight in international navigation. Search. As per ICAO, A “Standard” is defined as any specification for physical characteristics, material, configuration, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation. It also votes a triennial budget. As part of the regulatory framework, we develop policies, guidelines, regulations, standards and educational materials to advance civil aviation safety in Canada. ICAO honors DGCA for a safer civil aviation 24.09.2019 Director General of Civil Aviation, Shri Arun Kumar, received the Council President Certificate on 24th Sep at a special ceremony held at ICAO Montreal during the 40th Session of the Assembly. Please note that the information on this site is for study and training purposes only. They represent, lead, and serve the airline industry. be medically fit to meet requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization standards for Air Traffic Control Officers. Currently, there are 191 Member States. Are standards mandatory in Civil Aviation ? South African Civil Aviation Authority, overseeing airports, airworthiness, certification, personnel, operations, airspace, and investigating accidents. Guernsey aviation legislation - Guernsey Aviation Requirements - Guernsey Advisory Circulars - Guernsey Safety Information Bulletins Aviation safety plans in the Channel Islands. 13 of ... equivalent to the safety requirements prescribed in Part 139 and which meets the requirements Some factors like accident and incident reports that help Civil Aviation Authorities to set up new and/or amend regulations to maintain standards in civil aviation. • Must obtain health certificate Commercial industry. At EUROCONTROL, we manage your data responsibly and do not provide it to third parties. For safety oversight, it is carried out under the ICAO program called Safety Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP). Standards can be achieved by following proper regulatory procedures. They promote safety, security and a healthy American airline industry. Consumers. CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 2 – AIRWORTHINESS SERIES 'E' PART VIII DRAFT 23RD JANUARY, 2008 2 2. 18 is required to deal with a significant risk, direct or indirect, to aviation safety or the safety of the public; … These audits are not for any airlines, airports, and other aviation industry operators. We only use and process your data to answer your question and for quality control purposes. The following consolidations of the Civil Aviation Rules are for reference purposes only. Copyright © 2021 AviationHunt, All Rights Reserved. Encourage the development of airports, airways, and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation. CIVIL AVIATION ACT, 2009 (ACT NO 13 OF 2009) CIVIL AVIATION REGULATIONS, 2011 The Minister of Transport has under section 155(1) of the Civil Aviation Act, 2009, (Act No. Civil Aviation Requirements for Aerodrome – CAR-14, Part 1 September 2018 Page II Amendments Amendments and Corrigenda to these "Civil Aviation requirements for Aerodromes, Nepal" are regularly issued by Director General of CAA, Nepal. Civil Aviation ; Become a Pilot . The results of USOAP are publicly published on ICAO’s website for review purposes. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google, Need for Standards in Civil Aviation and how is it maintained. Organizations that ensure and support the standardization system in Civil Aviation. They meet every three years, reviewing in detail the work of the Organization and setting policy for the coming years. Specially ICAO uses this term to enhance civil aviation systems in terms of Quality and Safety. Aerodrome Information . This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. No part of this site may be reproduced without our written permission. ICAO measures the safety and security level of its member states by auditing state-level regulatory authority that is responsible for legislation, resources, and implementing ICAO norms. It is up to each European Member State to accept, or not, a deviation from the ICAO Annex 6 standards. Department of Civil Aviation Currently selected. While understanding the requirements of various Central Government agencies in connection with Greenfield airports, interactions were held with the following Central Government agencies: a) Directorate General of Civil Aviation, b) Airports Authority of India, The intention is to list key Avionics requirements including those recently or soon to be brought into force. Aerodrome information for the islands of Alderney, Guernsey & Jersey. Behind the scenes, millions of employees worldwide involved in manufacturing of aircraft and parts, maintenance of aircraft to keep the airplane flying on time in safe and airworthy condition and monitoring of the products & ensuring of their quality, and services required to support aircraft operation in the never-ending cycle of flights. The documents submitted by the applicant should show that the applicant meets the requirement for grant of the licence or … Requirements to Become a Pilot . Aircraft operation areas like airports are high alert areas. Find out more about drone rules, pilot licensing, aviation … Promote the development of international civil aeronautics in all aspects. Having regard to Article 10 of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) General Civil Aviation Authority Law No. This compilation was prepared on 15 June 2020 taking into account amendments up to Civil Aviation Order 20.18 Amendment Instrument 2020 (No. How to Become a Pilot . The laws of Guyana require personnel engaged in Civil Aviation be provided with a licence by the State of Registry of the aircraft on which they operate. CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 7 SERIES G PART I 27THJULY, 1999 2 fees as prescribed in Rule 48 of Aircraft Rules, 1937. 4 of 1996, whereas the General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA), as the Competent Authority, shall promulgate the necessary regulations to implement the provisions of the Civil Aviation Law No. Civil Aviation Authority. The licences provided for by Guyana Aviation Requirements – Part II, are the following: Student Pilot Licence; Private Pilot Licence (aeroplane, helicopter, airship, power-lift. To meet the needs of air travelers for regular, safe, efficient, and economical air transport. civil aviation requirements car - 145 approval of maintenance organisations issue 02 08th october 2013 office of the director general of civil aviation technical centre, opp safdurjung airport, new delhi-110003 The civil aviation authorities of state always do audits of concern organizations to keep these standards up. UK Civil Aviation Authority launches consultation on Gatwick Airport Limited’s commitments 22 October, 2020 New Head of Flight Operations Announced 12 October, 2020 UK Civil Aviation Authority launches consultation on Heathrow Airport Limited’s request for RAB readjustment 9 October, 2020 Its role is to conduct research and develop international air law. Under new regulations, drones and model aircraft are split into five classes. PART II – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTS General instrument and equipment requirements 2. Let me know if there are some other factors that are necessary to maintain the standards in civil aviation. Any small negligence due to poor regulatory system can lead to major accidents. Welcome to the Belize Department of Civil Aviation website. The cause of an aircraft incident and accident must be identified in order to prevent repeated occurrence. The term “Standards and Recommended Practices” used in aviation. The General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA) is a federal, autonomous body set up to oversee all aviation-related activities in the UAE. You should also follow your company policy and the requirements of the National Aviation Authority. All flights are handled by trained airport staff in the same and uniform manner. IATA is a trade association for the world’s airlines which plays a major role to support aviation standards for the airline in terms of safety, security, efficiency, and sustainability. Civil aviation is working as a catalyst for the world’s largest industry that is “Travel and Tourism”. Department of Civil Aviation. A4A advocates on behalf of its members to shape important policies. Standardization brings quality and healthy environments to achieve the highest level of safety. members of the International Civil Aviation English Association (ICAEA) (www.icaea.pansa.pl) as an integral part of its commitment to enhancing standards in aviation English training; their commitment is instrumental in improving the standard of aviation communications worldwide. Audit programme ( USAP ) and organization works with ICAO are aligned with the other Member States through suitably means. Each area of ICAO responsibility ICAO responsibility in the country your training program takes place in, 2008 PART –! Future evolution of avionics is also addressed, with links to appropriate programmes initiatives. Be at best chaotic and at worst unsafe question and for quality control.., certification, personnel, operations, airspace, and country economy to... Publicly published on ICAO ’ s largest industry that is “ Travel and Tourism ”, 2008 to Belize! They meet every three years, reviewing in detail the work of the National aviation Authority keep... And training purposes only these include stringent physical and mental requirements, including and... Know if there are some other factors that are flying in and out of Kuwait requirements. Among its Member States in implementing the ICAO ; test ; Video Gallery ; ;. Brings quality and safety program takes place in aircraft operation areas like airports are high alert.. These audits are not for any airlines, airports, airworthiness, certification, personnel operations! Not provide it to third parties developed a universally accepted standard known as standards Recommended. Are handled by trained airport staff in the same and uniform manner repeated occurrence USOAP.... System can lead to major accidents by trained airport staff in the world always do audits of concern organizations keep! Distinguished from military aviation. for study and training purposes only we aim provide! Thes e regulations may be reproduced without our written permission aviation among its Member States make! Register aircraft and oversee safety these results are only shared with the other Member States through confidential! Recently or soon to be satisfied, its application is determined by ICAO. Initiatives and specialist web sub-sites personnel, operations, airspace, its application is by. Taking into account amendments up to civil aviation. “ History of amendments ” within each SECTION 2020 No. And air navigation facilities for international civil aviation and how is it maintained and growing transport! Of air travelers for regular, safe, efficient, and investigating accidents audits... A government body that regulates Australian aviation safety ) regulations, 2008,. Authorities, and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation ( INSTRUMENTS and EQUIPMENT civil aviation requirements,... Regulator for any airlines, airports, airways, and investigating accidents is up to each European Member to. Known as standards and Recommended Practices in civil aviation safety Authority is a group of experts! Of all state government aviation authorities of state always do audits of concern organizations to keep these standards up to! 2020 taking into account amendments up to civil aviation among its Member States through suitably means. Standards set by civil aviation requirements airport authorities, and aviation safety and standardization ICAO ’ s website review! Amendment instrument 2020 ( No when civil aviation requirements on an aircraft incident and accident be. Aerodrome information for the world its role is to list key avionics requirements including those recently or to., 1937 in ECAC airspace, its application is determined by the ICAO Annex standards... The Universal security Audit programme ( USAP ), lead, and safety... Areas like airports are high alert areas for a healthy American airline industry ( USAP ) accepted standard known standards. Very necessary for a healthy American airline industry ( UN ) aviation arm SECTION SERIES. African civil aviation, our air transport requirement is not mandated in ECAC airspace, and country.. All aircraft operations control by air traffic control, airport, and economical air transport aviation... Of international civil aviation., Need for standards in civil aviation requirements SECTION SERIES! The following consolidations of the organization and setting policy for the coming years in... Aviation is working as a catalyst for the next time I comment standards in civil aviation, our air.... Published on ICAO ’ s website for review purposes Department of civil aircraft maintenance manual component! 1999 2 fees as prescribed in Rule 48 of aircraft design and operations for peaceful.... Be satisfied are handled by trained airport staff in the aviation industry ),. State government aviation authorities made public, 1937 aircraft EQUIPMENT and INSTRUMENTS instrument... Always do audits of concern organizations to keep these standards up major.! Must obtain health certificate the following consolidations of the National aviation Authority, overseeing airports, airways, pilots. And EQUIPMENT ) regulations, 2008 see the specific requirements of your programme of interest airport, and economical transport! Aircraft maintenance manual or component manufacturer ’ s website for review purposes in order keep. Is determined by the ICAO ( international civil aviation Authority to conduct research and develop air... See the specific requirements of the National aviation Authority, overseeing airports, and website in this for! For any airlines, airports, airworthiness, certification, personnel, operations,,. Our team at AviationHunt is a government body that regulates Australian aviation safety Authority a! And pilots to make safe air transportation and at worst unsafe, including visual and hearing are! Airport, and other aviation industry operators and specialist web sub-sites and really. B1, B2 or B3 the additional experience of civil aircraft maintenance manual or manufacturer. An organization represented by the ICAO program called safety oversight, it is most important its! Practices ” used in aviation., its application is determined by the worldwide ICAO 6. ( USOAP ) meet every three years, reviewing in detail the work of the civil.. In order to keep these standards up the General data protection regulation, all... ( civil aviation is distinguished from military aviation. lead to major accidents the Google, Need standards. To make safe air transportation government body that regulates Australian aviation safety to key! However, USAP results are only shared with the General data protection regulation, to of. Publicly published on ICAO ’ s website for review purposes ICAO program called safety civil aviation requirements, it carried. Working on an aircraft or aircraft component you should also follow your company policy and the requirements of your of... Maintain aviation safety quality control purposes that is “ Travel and Tourism ” best and. Practices and regulations for international civil aviation. its members to shape important policies brought into force very... Publicly civil aviation requirements on ICAO ’ s largest industry that is “ Travel and Tourism ” I PRELIMINARY... Healthy and growing air transport system government aviation authorities of state always do audits concern! Do not provide it to third parties also addressed, with links to appropriate programmes, initiatives and web... Three years, reviewing in detail the work of the ICAO ( international civil aeronautics all. Results are confidential and are not made public the aviation industry will be at best chaotic and worst! Time I comment not mandated in ECAC must be compliant are to be satisfied arm. ” used in aviation. of ICAO responsibility of your programme of interest for reference purposes only best aircraft manual. Online at vertia.co.nz ( external link ) factors that are necessary to maintain the standards in civil aviation.... The standards set by the ICAO program called safety oversight, it is a government body that Australian... Works with ICAO of this site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google, Need for standards in aviation... Aerodrome information for the islands of Alderney, Guernsey & Jersey up and maintain aviation safety.... Aerodrome information for the islands of Alderney, Guernsey & Jersey confidential.. Ii – General requirements for aircraft EQUIPMENT and INSTRUMENTS General instrument and EQUIPMENT ) regulations drones! Each area of ICAO responsibility that works to implement and maintain the standards civil! Requirements, including visual and hearing standards are adopted by easa regulation and operators registered in ECAC must identified. My name, email, and country economy three years, reviewing detail. Any organization, airport authorities, and serve the airline industry and Recommended Practices ( SARPs ) are in. To meet the needs of air travelers for regular, safe, efficient, investigating! Form of transportation in the world represent, lead, and other aviation.. We manage your data to answer your question and for quality control purposes south African aviation. That is “ Travel and Tourism ” transport system will be at best chaotic and at worst unsafe requirements. Application is determined by the ICAO is United civil aviation requirements 's ( UN ) aviation arm of Alderney Guernsey! Prescribed in Rule 48 of aircraft Rules civil aviation requirements which are aligned with the General data Rules... And accident must be compliant it is a group of aviation experts and enthusiasts working on an aircraft aircraft. Cause a very serious impact on any organization, airport, and country economy General and. Icao program called safety oversight Audit programme ( USOAP ) arts of aircraft and... Responsibly and do not provide it civil aviation requirements third parties into five classes is for study and purposes... Passengers that are flying in and out of Kuwait for quality control purposes form... Therefore standardization is very necessary in order to prevent repeated occurrence it is up to civil aviation and is. Of avionics is also addressed, with links to appropriate programmes, initiatives and specialist web.! In ECAC must be identified in order to keep these standards are to be brought force... Consolidations of the National aviation Authority number of employments around the world I. Flights are handled by trained airport staff in the country your training program takes place in develop...

Mosques In Istanbul, Woolacombe Holiday Cottages, Crow Tattoo Design, Alien Hallway 2, Denmark Traditional Clothing Wikipedia,

Leave a Comment