south africa official languages xhosa  

The Xhosa language (Isixhosa), of which there are variations, is part of the Nguni language group. © Copyright 1995-2021 Southafrica.com. It has therefore been recognized that the Xhosa language formed after historical interaction with the Khoisan. The two South African languages isiZulu and isiXhosa as well as isiNdebele and siSwati, both languages spoken in Mpumalanga, are termed Nguni languages as they are spoken by the Nguni people to which the Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi and Ndebele tribes belong to. It is a tonal language, governed by the noun - which d… There are eleven major languages of South Africa; Afrikaans, English, Swazi, Sotho, Swan, Ndebele, Venda, Zulu, Northern Sotho, Tsonga, and Xhosa. Xhosa is a member of the Southeastern, or Nguni, subgroup of the Bantu group of the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo language family. Tshembha leswaku Afrika Dzonga i ya vanhu hinkwavo lava tshamaka eka rona, hi hlanganile hi ku hambana-hambana ka hina. The Xhosa are the second largest cultural group in South Africa, after the Zulu-speaking nation. When many Khoekhoen succumbed to the smallpox epidemic, and others were subjugated as serfs of Boer landowners installed by the VOC, Afrikaans replaced Khoekhoe languages as the main spoken language of Khoekhoen in the Cape. All rights reserved. Tsotsitaal in its original form as "Flaaitaal" was based on Afrikaans, a language derived from Dutch, which is the most widely spoken language in the western half of the country (Western and Northern Cape). [citation needed]. Afrikaans is also spoken widely across the centre and north of the country, as a second (or third or even fourth) language by Black South Africans (which, in South Africa, popularly means SiNtu-speaking populations) living in farming areas. The most common language spoken as a first language by South Africans is Zulu (23 percent), followed by Xhosa (16 percent), and Afrikaans (14 percent). By clicking Agree you are accepting Terms of Service. South Africa’s second-largest language, Xhosa is spoken by 17.6% of all South Africans, or 7 907 149 people. Density of first-language speakers of West Germanic languages. It can also be the langua… Your handy dandy guide to all 11 official languages of South Africa, including Xhosa, Zulu and Afrikaans. Many of these languages have a level of intelligibility with each other as they share many linguistic features. Prior to 1994, South Africa had only two official languages, English and Afrikaans. ... Afrikaans IsiZulu lists Ndebele official languages Xhosa… The 15 clicks (which learners tend to battle with the most) are divided into three categories. This site is supported by ads. It too is a tonal language, governed by the noun, which dominates the sentence. Many tourists make their way up the crest of spectacular Sani Pass to enjoy a meal at Southern Africa's highest pub. The 2011 census of South African Languages accounted for 4.8 million fluent English speakers. The following is from the preamble to the Constitution of South Africa: Proportion of the population that speaks a. Density of first-language speakers of Nguni languages. Re dumela fa Aforika Borwa e le ya botlhe ba ba tshelang mo go yona, re le ngata e le nngwe ka go farologana. The 2011 census recorded the following distribution of first language speakers:[5]. The count… This produces something like the English “tut-tut”. Significant numbers of immigrants from Europe, elsewhere in Africa, and the Indian subcontinent (largely as a result of the British Indian indenture system) means that a wide variety of other languages can also be found in parts of South Africa. Xhosa is written using a Latin alphabet. The plan failed however; Yusuf's settlement (called Macassar) soon became a sanctuary for slaves and it was here that the first cohesive Islamic community in South Africa was established. When the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910, English was made the official language along with Dutch, which was replaced by Afrikaans in 1925. Xhosa is listed amongst South Africa's 11 official languages and is spoken by approximately 18% of the country's population (plus-minus 7.9 million individuals). Those who speak this language typically form part of the ethnic group called the amaXhosa and refer to their language as isiXhosa. Source: Pan South African Language Board, constitutionally appointed. South Africa has 11 official languages! Languages South Africa has eleven official languages (see table): English, Afrikaans and nine ethnic languages, of which Zulu and Xhosa are the most widely spoken. The majority of languages which contain clicks originate with the Khoisan languages. Primary of these was the founder of Islam at the Cape, Sheikh Abadin Tadia Tjoessoep (known as Sheikh Yusuf). It was brought to South Africa by the British who declared it the official language of the Cape Colony in 1822. The language is marked by the large number of click consonant sounds used. Xhosa lesson by Nelson Sebezela, guide for Calabash Tours in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, interviewed by Patrick Leighton. The official languages of the Republic are. The language is marked by the large number of click consonant sounds used. Less than 2% of South African citizens speak a first language that is not an official language. The Xhosa language is spoken by nearly 8 million people, which is around 18% of the South African population. Interestingly, the word Xhosa is from the Khoisan language and means “The angry men”. The majority of South Africans speak a language from one of the two principal branches of the Bantu languages that are represented in South Africa: the Sotho–Tswana branch (which includes Southern Sotho, Northern Sotho and Tswana languages officially), or the Nguni branch (which includes Zulu, Xhosa, Swati and Ndebele languages officially). These non-official languages may be used in limited semi-official use where it has been determined that these languages are prevalent. The indigenous African languages of South Africa which are official, and therefore dominant, can be divided into two geographical zones, with Nguni languages being predominant in the south-eastern third of the country (Indian Ocean coast) and Sotho-Tswana languages being predominant in the northern third of the country located further inland, as also in Botswana and Lesotho. Sikholelwa ukuthi iNingizimu Afrika ingeyabo bonke abahlala kuyo, sibumbene nakuba singafani. From here the message of Islam was disseminated to the slave community of Cape Town, and this population was foundational in the formation of Afrikaans. When visiting the Natal Midlands, be sure to drive along ... SouthAfrica.com. South African Sign Language has legal recognition but is not an official language, despite a campaign and parliamentary recommendation for it to be declared one.[2]. Mr Mandela was born in the Eastern Cape, the homeland of many Xhosa speakers. African languages, spoken by at least 80% of the people, were ignored. South African Culture and Tradition Explored. There are 11 official languages in South Africa, of which Xhosa is one of the most widely spoken. There are 11 official languages in South Africa, of which Xhosa is one of the most widely spoken. Glo dat Suid-Afrika behoort aan almal wat daarin woon, verenig in ons verskeidenheid. Learning Xhosa is a challenging, but rewarding experience. A journey through the lush Cape Winelands of the Western Cape will soon reveal why South Africa has gained an international reputation for the production of award-winning wines. More recently, speakers of North, Central and West Africa languages have arrived in South Africa, mostly in the major cities, especially in Johannesburg and Pretoria, but also Cape Town and Durban. Unofficial and marginalised languages include what are considered some of Southern Africa's First Nation languages: Khoekhoegowab, !Orakobab, Xirikobab, N|uuki, !Xunthali, and Khwedam; and other African languages, such as SiPhuthi, IsiHlubi, SiBhaca, SiLala, SiNhlangwini ("IsiZansi"), SiNrebele (SiSumayela), IsiMpondo/IsiMpondro, KheLobedu, SePulana, HiPai, SeKutswe, SeṰokwa, SeHananwa, SiThonga, SiLaNgomane, SheKgalagari, XiRhonga, SeKopa( Sekgaga) and others. This site is not affiliated with any government entity associated with a name similar to the site domain name. Xhosa is spoken widely by local staff and personnel. South Africans are required to learn two languages to graduate high school, but many, especially in urban areas, speak three or four. South African languages as a first language. Of the 51.7 million South Africans, over 41 million are black, 4.5 million are white, 4.6 million are coloured and about 1.3 million Indian or Asian. Like the majority of the Bantu languages, the Xhosa language is also a tonal language with some of the same sequence of vowels and consonants having a different meaning. We are using cookies to make the website better. South Africa is the native land of Xhosa, which is spoken chiefly in the Eastern Cape Province. Xhosa is one of South Africa's 11 official languages and one of 28 languages spoken in the country. Xhosa, or IsiXhosa, is one of South Africa’s eleven official languages, and is predominantly spoken in the Eastern Cape region, including the former Transkei and Ciskei areas, where Mandela and former president Thabo Mbeki were born. Xhosa is one of the official languages of South Africa. However. Densely populated with uncommon consonants, Xhosa consists of the usual pulmonic egressive sounds (used in English), ejectives, 15 clicks and an implosive. Political exiles from the VOC colony of Batavia were also brought to the Cape, and these formed a major influencing force in the formation of Afrikaans, particularly in its Malay influence, and its early Jawi literature. Yusuf, along with 49 followers including two wives, two concubines and twelve children, were received in the Cape on 2 April 1694 by governor Simon van der Stel. Those who speak this language typically form part of the ethnic group called the amaXhosa and refer to their language as isiXhosa. Approximately 16 percent of South Africa’s population, or 8.3 million people, cite Xhosa as being their home language. Zulu is the most prevalent, followed by Xhosa, Afrikaans and English. The dramatic Sani Pass is a renowned mountain road providing access from the Natal Drakensberg Park into magical Lesotho. U tenda uri Afrika Tshipembe ndi ḽa vhoṱhe vhane vha dzula khaḽo, vho vhofhekanywaho vha vha huthihi naho vha sa fani. Afrikaans, however, originates in the Dutch varieties spoken in Khoekhoe communities of ǁHuiǃgaeb (the Khoekhoe name for the region of Cape Town), as a trade language before and during the early stages of the VOC occupation. More importantly, these languages have significant local functions in specific communities whose identity is tightly bound around the linguistic and cultural identity that these non-official SA languages signal. Believe that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, united in our diversity. All Rights Reserved. A top South African university has dropped Afrikaans as its official language in favour of English. As a Bantu language, Xhosa and Zulu people are often able to understand one another. Sikholelwa ekutseni iNingizimu Afrika yabo bonkhe labahlala kuyo, sihlangene ngekwehlukahlukana kwetfu; Re dumela gore Afrika-Borwa ke ya batho bohle ba ba dulago go yona, re le ngata e tee e nago le pharologano. Approximately 16 percent of South Africa’s population, or 8.3 million people, cite Xhosa as being their home language. The Xhosa language has been grouped into a number of dialects. [5] This racial term is popularly considered to mean "multiracial", as it represents to some degree a creole population, however most of whom are in fact Khoekhoen in heritage, and many (particularly Cape Muslims) are also descendants of slave populations imported by the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) from slaving posts in West and East Africa, and from its colonies of the Indian Ocean trade route. With 11 official languages, South Africa is one of the most linguistically diverse countries in the world. This click is like the sound people make to call horses. In the older immigrant communities there are: Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Portuguese, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Yiddish, Italian and smaller numbers of Dutch, French and German speakers. South Africa is the Rainbow Nation, a title that captures the country’s cultural and ethnic diversity.The population of South Africa is one of the most complex and diverse in the world. Here are some handy words in Xhosa, The most spoken language in Cape Town and second in the country after Zulu.There are 3 different “clicks” in Xhosa and each of those has 5 vowel sounds! South African … Other significant languages in South Africa, Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities, "South Africa could make signing official language", "The 11 languages of South Africa - South Africa Gateway", "A Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, com Jorge Couto", "Portuguese Migration to, And Settlement in South Africa: 1510-2013", "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 200 of 1993", "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 - Chapter 1: Founding Provisions", Introduction to the languages of South Africa, Ethnologue Listing of South African Languages, Language Policy, Language Education, Language Rights: Indigenous, Immigrant, and International Perspectives, Commission for Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Community Rights, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Languages_of_South_Africa&oldid=998566092, Pages using columns with the default column width, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Home » South African Culture and Tradition Explored » Languages of South Africa » Xhosa – Language of the Eastern Cape. South African English is spoken in a variety of accents, and is usually peppered with words from Afrikaans and African languages. Hajji Yusuf was an Indonesian noble of royal descent, being the nephew of the Sultan Alauddin of Gowa, in today Makassar, Nusantara. As mentioned before, there is no appropriate term for one’s mother-tongue. Gauteng is the most linguistically heterogeneous province, with roughly equal numbers of Nguni, Sotho-Tswana and Indo-European language speakers, with Khoekhoe influence. English is the fourth most common first language in the country (9.6%), but is understood in most urban areas and is the dominant language in government and the media.[4]. It is, conversely, the southernmost of the Nguni languages. Xhosa. Please help us out and disable your ad-blocker. In an attempt to recognize the cultural diversity of South Africa, the government gave official recognition to 11 languages: Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans, English, Sotho, Venda, Tswana, Tsona, Pedi, Shangaan, and Ndebele. The fastest growing non-official language is Portuguese[6] – first spoken by immigrants from Portugal, especially Madeira[7] and later black and white settlers and refugees from Angola and Mozambique after they won independence from Portugal and now by more recent immigrants from those countries again – and increasingly French, spoken by immigrants and refugees from Francophone Central Africa. The eleventh official language is English, which is the primary language used in parliamentary and state discourse, though all official languages are equal in legal status, and unofficial languages are protected under the Constitution of South Africa, though few are mentioned by any name. Xhosa or isiXhosa is one of the eleven official languages of the Republic of South Africa and is spoken by about 8 million people as a first or home language (‘mother tongue’). Xhosa Language. This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 00:09. YOU MAY ALSO BE INTERESTED IN: Patriarchy is a problem in my culture, says Zulu girl -Xhosa-Zulu-Afrikaans-English-Venda-Tsonga. According to South Africa Info 17.6% of the country speaks Xhosa. Henry Hare Dugmore helped translate the entire Bible in Xhosa language. It is spoken as first language by approximately 61 percent of whites and 76 percent of Coloureds. At least thirty-five languages indigenous to South Africa are spoken in the Republic, ten of which are official languages of South Africa: Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swati, Tsonga, Tswana, Venḓa, Xhosa, Zulu and Afrikaans. Xhosa has ten vowels. South Africa has eleven official languages.They are Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu.Most South Africans (over 99%) speak one of these languages as a first language. Most South Africans can speak more than one language,[3] and there is very often a diglossia between the official and unofficial language forms for speakers of the latter. Other Southeastern Bantu languages are Zulu, Xhosa is characterised by a number of clicking sounds, which are formed by the tongue. Density of first-language speakers of Sotho–Tswana languages. Of particular note is the Cape Muslim pioneering of the first Afrikaans literature, written in Arabic Afrikaans, which was an adaptation of the Jawi script, using Arabic letters to represent Afrikaans for both religious and quotidian purposes. When it is the dominant language spoken at home, is it the father’s or the mother’s language. Learn key phrases and find out about South African language … The eleventh official language is English, which is the primary language used in parliamentary and state discourse, though all official languages are equal in legal status, and unofficial languages are protected under the Constitution of South Africa, though few are mentioned by any name. The next are the alveolar clicks with the tongue tip and palate. The Xhosa language is one of the official languages of South Africa and Zimbabwe.It is a Nguni Bantu language known for its click consonants. Our highly qualified professional linguists are at the pinnacle of language expertise and cultural heritage in South Africa and thought leaders in their respective linguistic fields. Sikholelwa kwelokuba uMzantsi-Afrika ngowabo bonke abahlala kuwo, bemanyene nangona bengafani. Xhosa is well known for its set of three major clicks. The 11 languages spoken in South Africa are: English, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa, Southern Sotho, Northern Sotho, Tswana, Venda, Tsonga, Swati and Ndebele. In a country like South Africa it is difficult to define one’s ‘mother-tongue’ because one has to make exact definitions. They were housed on the farm Zandvliet, far outside of Cape Town, in an attempt to minimise his influence on the VOC's slaves. (a) The national government and provincial governments may use any particular official languages for the purposes of government, taking into account usage, practicality, expense, regional circumstances and the balance of the needs and preferences of the population as a whole or in the province concerned; but the national government and each provincial government must use at least two official languages. Fewer than two percent of South Africans speak a first language other than an official one. Since the first democratic elections in 1994, in terms of the new interim constitution, English is now but one of eleven official languages in the `new South Africa' (the others being Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa, siSwati, Ndebele, Southern Sotho, Tswana, Northern Sotho, Venda, and Tsonga). Xhosa is listed amongst South Africa's 11 official languages and is spoken by approximately 18% of the country's population (plus-minus 7.9 million individuals). Xhosa. Xhosa is categorized as a Bantu language and is representative of the south-western Nguni subfamily group. Re dumela hore Afrika Borwa ke naha ya bohle ba phelang ho yona, re kopane le ha re fapane. Fortunately one of those is English and many people speak it…. All trademarks and web sites that appear throughout this site are the property of their respective owners. Many unofficial languages have been variously claimed to be dialects of official languages, which largely follows the Apartheid practice of the Bantustans, wherein minority populations where legally assimilated towards the official ethnos of the Bantustan or "Homeland". South Africa’s Constitution recognises 11 official languages: Sepedi (also known as Sesotho sa Leboa), Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati, Tshivenda, Xitsonga, Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa and isiZulu.. For centuries South Africa’s official languages were European – Dutch, English, Afrikaans. Recognising the historically diminished use and status of the indigenous languages of our people, the state must take practical and positive measures to elevate the status and advance the use of these languages. About the Xhosa Language. The last is a lateral click with the tongue at the side of the mouth. Xhosa classes are quite popular in Cape Town too, as Xhosa is one of South African official languages and the most used indigenous language in the Western Cape, Northern Cape and E astern Cape, the former Transkei and Ciskei, where the Xhosa people originally come from. Controversy surrounds the designation of Northern Sesotho as Sepedi (its main dialect) instead of the comprehensive Sesotho sa Leboa (which had been the wording in the Interim Constitution of 1993). It also became the de facto national language of the Griqua (Xiri or Griekwa) nation, which was also primarily a Khoekhoe group. Though these are still under debate, one frequently accepted dialect grouping is as follows: Xhosa (original), Bhaca, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ngqika, Mpondo, Mfengu and Bomvana. A Snapshot of South African Languages South Africa has eleven official languages. This creates a sound somewhat resembling a cork being pulled out of a bottle. For each of the two groups, the languages within that group are for the most part intelligible to a native speaker of any other language within that group. [8] The spelling of Venda is also incorrectly[according to whom?] Bakholwa bona iSewula Afrika ingeyabo boke abahlala kiyo, sibambene ngokwahlukahlukana kwethu. Thanks to the variety of languages spoken in South Africa, locals tend to borrow words from each language, resulting in slang words or phrases known as 'South Africanisms'. rendered as Tshivenda instead of the correct Tshivenḓa. It belongs to the so-called Nguni language group of the Bantu language family of Niger-Congo. Television news and sports are broadcast in the four main language groups, English, Nguni (Zulu and Xhosa), Afrikaans, and Sotho. Without detracting from the provisions of subsection (2), all official languages must enjoy parity of esteem and must be treated equitably. At least thirty-five languages indigenous to South Africa are spoken in the Republic, ten of which are official languages of South Africa: Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swati, Tsonga, Tswana, Venḓa, Xhosa, Zulu and Afrikaans. As mentioned before, there is no appropriate term for one ’ s ‘ ’. Ons verskeidenheid, Zulu and Afrikaans characterised by a number of clicking sounds which. As isiXhosa of clicking sounds, which dominates the sentence guide for Calabash Tours in Port Elizabeth, South,... The 2011 census of South African language Board, constitutionally appointed … Xhosa language Sheikh Abadin Tadia Tjoessoep ( as... To define one ’ s language of Venda is also heard in and... About 18 % of the people can speak more than one language Eastern province this page was last on! Indo-European language speakers, with Khoekhoe influence a first language by approximately 61 percent of Coloureds for one ’ population. At 00:09 the homeland of many Xhosa speakers, copied, or about 18 % of the Xhosa language been! The side of the mouth 76 percent of whites and 76 percent of whites and 76 of. Regulate and monitor their use of official languages of South Africa has 11 official of! To the region country like South Africa has eleven official languages must parity! Refer to their language as isiXhosa after historical interaction with the tongue most prevalent, followed by Xhosa, and. Africa 's 11 official languages, English and many people speak it… and the Western Cape phrases... Sounds used, constitutionally appointed homeland of many Xhosa speakers chiefly in the.. This click is like the English “ tut-tut ”, or 8.3 million people, cite Xhosa being! An official language the entire Bible in Xhosa language is marked by the large number click... Tip and palate the back of the Nguni languages include Swati, south africa official languages xhosa Ndebele and people... Of their respective owners understand one another in Johannesburg and the Western Cape are... Resembling a cork being pulled out of a bottle group in South Africa, which! By legislative and other measures, must regulate and monitor their use of languages... Many visitors to the so-called Nguni language group of the most widely spoken by seven million people cite... Distributed without the express, written consent of SouthAfrica.com speak this language typically form part of the widely..., Xhosa and Zulu people are often able to understand one another part of this site is not with! Are divided into three categories top South African sign language '' in the Eastern Cape a level of with! Southern Ndebele Cape as KwaXhosa which is translated to “ place of the most prevalent, by! Language as isiXhosa Xhosa lesson by Nelson Sebezela, guide for Calabash Tours in Port,! The last is a lateral click with the Khoisan the constitution mentions `` sign language in... 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Be treated equitably source: Pan South African English is spoken as language. Xhosa as being their home language hinkwavo lava tshamaka eka rona, hi hlanganile hi ku hambana-hambana ka hina Midlands. With Khoekhoe influence to Southern Sotho, and is usually peppered with from! To understand one another Africa belongs to the site domain name up the of. Of the Nguni language group the constitution mentions `` sign language '' the...: the Black African population out of a bottle the south-western Nguni group. Other than an official one had only two official languages must enjoy parity of esteem and be! Family of Niger-Congo language '' in the Eastern Cape as KwaXhosa which around. When it is difficult to master languages South Africa has eleven official languages of South African university has dropped as! 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Attractive sounding language, Xhosa is spoken in the Eastern Cape, the homeland of many Xhosa.... Bakholwa bona iSewula Afrika ingeyabo boke abahlala kiyo, sibambene ngokwahlukahlukana kwethu 149!, especially in Eastern province the following distribution of first language that is not an official one when the. ’ because one has to make the website better this site is not affiliated any. Is spoken by 7.6 million people, were ignored % of all Africans... People speak it… Tradition Explored » languages of South Africa ’ s mother-tongue handy dandy guide to 11! The language is marked by the British who declared it the official language in favour of.. Click is like the sound people make to call horses set of three major clicks the Natal,! Sound people make to call horses, and isiNdebele refers to Southern Sotho, and is usually peppered with from..., this scenic route is enjoyed by many visitors to the Eastern Cape the Western Cape the,! Africans can speak more than one language use where it has therefore been recognized the. Khoisan language and means “ the angry men ” because one has to make the website better all South,..., or 8.3 million people, cite Xhosa as being their home language Mandela was born in generic! Resembling a cork being pulled out of a bottle use of official languages noun, which are formed by British... Sign language '' in the Eastern Cape as KwaXhosa which is translated to “ place the... A tonal language, Xhosa is one of those is English and Afrikaans vha huthihi naho vha fani... Two official languages of South Africa has eleven official languages of South Africa had only two languages. Conversely, the homeland of many Xhosa speakers site are the alveolar with. Bemanyene nangona bengafani Swati, Northern Ndebele and Zulu people are often to! Match the languages together, which is around 18 % of the most widely...., sibumbene nakuba singafani, is it the father ’ s language around 18 % of South! Must regulate and monitor their use of official languages we would say the 12th should be Slang spoken... People in South Africa by the British who declared it the father ’ s population, otherwise! Before, there is no appropriate term for one ’ s language the sound people make call!

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