gj 1214b mass  

Its equilibrium temperature is believed to be in the range of 393–555 K (120–282 °C; 248–539 °F), depending on how much of the star's radiation is reflected into space. [1][14] Water planets could result from inward planetary migration and originate as protoplanets that formed from volatile ice-rich material beyond the snow-line but that never attained masses sufficient to accrete large amounts of H/He nebular gas. Astronomers have claimed the existence of a new class of planet: a "water-world" with a thick, steamy atmosphere. GJ 1214b’s size and mass (2.65 and 6.45 times that of the Earth, respectively;Carter et al.2010) give it a density intermediate to that of our solar system’s inner (rocky) and outer (gas-dominated) planets. The exoplanet, orbiting a small star only 40 light-years away from us, has a mass about six times that of the Earth. This image shows an artist's view of the planet Gliese 1214 b in front of its host star. “A huge fraction of its mass is made up of water.” GJ 1214b was discovered in 2009 by the ground-based MEarth (pronounced “mirth”) Project, which is led by CfA’s David Charbonneau. 2011). As of 2017, GJ 1214 b is the most likely known candidate for being an ocean planet. Although no clear signs were observed of water vapor or any other molecule, the authors of the study believe the planet may have an atmosphere composed mainly of water vapor. GJ 436b is categorized as a "warm Neptune" because it is much closer to its star than frigid Neptune is to the sun. GJ 1214b (also spelled Gliese 1214b) is an extrasolar planet orbiting the M4.5V dwarf star GJ 1214 in the constellation Ophiuchus, about 42 light-years away. An update on the atmosphere of super-Earth GJ1214b, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gliese_1214_b&oldid=994903108, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 03:50. Its low mass suggests that unlike Earth GJ 1214b may only have a small amount of rock in its composition. Gliese 1214 b (thường được rút ngắn thành GJ 1214 b aka Ocean Planet) là một ngoại hành tinh quay quanh ngôi sao Gliese 1214, và được phát hiện vào tháng 12 năm 2009. To my mind, that makes it more of a "sub-Neptune" than a "super-Earth," but this is semantics. The planet orbits a small red dwarf star which has only 16% the mass of our own sun. The planet was discovered in December 2009. A new analysis detailing the atmosphere of GJ 1214b—a planet located about 40 light years from earth and one that researchers have studied since 2009—appeared in the March issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Here we report observations of the transiting planet GJ 1214b, which has a mass of 6.55 M_Earth and a radius 2.68 times Earth's radius (R_Earth), indicating that it is intermediate in stature between Earth and the ice giants of the Solar System. [7] GJ 1214 b could be a rocky planet with an outgassed hydrogen-rich atmosphere, a mini-Neptune, or an ocean planet. They then observed the star more closely and confirmed that it dimmed by roughly 1.5% every 1.58 days. Its parent star is 48 light-years from the Sun, in the constellation Ophiuchus. A Framework For Characterizing The Atmospheres Of GJ 1214b-type Low-mass Low-density Transiting Planets 2012 FORTNEY J., NETTELMANN N., KEMPTON E., MORDASINI Ch., ZAHNLE K. & 3 additional authors BAAS, 44, no 5, 103.05 abstract GJ 1214b Mass and Radius GJ 1214b is estimated to have a mass of around 6 to 7 times that of Earth, with a radius of around 2.7 times that of Earth, its low mass suggests a large amount of the planet is made up of water. On the basis of planetary models[15] it has been suggested that GJ 1214 b has a relatively thick gaseous envelope. [1] The loss of primordial atmosphere was indirectly confirmed in 2020 as no helium was detected at Gliese 1214 b. Because of the estimated old age of the planetary system and the calculated hydrodynamic escape rate of 9×105 kg s−1, scientists conclude that there has been a significant atmospheric loss during the lifetime of the planet and any current atmosphere cannot be primordial. It is thought the planet originally formed as an ice world far from its host star. “GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of,” Berta said. Illustration of planet GJ 1214b 5. "A huge fraction of its mass is made up of water." GJ 1214 bは、木星型惑星よりも … According to Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics scientist and lead author Zachory Berta, "GJ1214b is like no planet we know of. This super-Earth is about 2.7 times Earth's diameter and weighs almost seven times as much. "GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of," study lead author Zachory Berta of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., said in a statement. Through a comparison with theoretical models, the density in turn provides limited but highly useful information about the composition and structure of the planet.[1]. "A huge fraction of its mass is made up of water." This artist’s conception shows the newly discovered super-Earth GJ 1214b, which orbits a red dwarf star 40 light-years from our Earth. While its mass is similar to CoRoT-7b, its diameter is larger, so its density is lower. "GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of," Berta said. [4][5] For that reason, scientists have nicknamed the planet "the waterworld". GJ 1214b is classified as a water-world, and is the only example of such a planet yet to be discovered. Clouds in Atmosphere of Exoplanet GJ 1214b (Artist's View).tif 4,000 × 3,000; 7.92 MB CompositionOfKepler-10b.jpg 720 × 541; 54 KB Exoplanet Comparison GJ … [13], GJ 1214 b may be cooler than any other known transiting planet prior to the discovery of Kepler-16b in 2011 by the Kepler mission. If the mutual inclination between GJ 1214b and a hypothetical habitable zone planet is small, the probability of detection is ∼20% (Gillon et al. Follow-up radial-velocity measurements were then made with the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO's 3.6-meter telescope at La Silla, Chile; those measurements succeeded in providing independent evidence for the reality of the planet. Because a thick and cloud-free hydrogen-rich atmosphere would have produced detectable spectral features, such an atmosphere appears to be ruled out. The actual bulk make-up of GJ 1214b is determined by its unknown formation, migration, and evolution history. [7] GJ 1214 b is also significant because its parent star is relatively near the Sun and because it transits (crosses in front of) that parent star, which allows the planet's atmosphere to be studied using spectroscopic methods. In early 2009, the astronomers running the project noticed that the star GJ 1214 appeared to show drops in brightness of that sort. A super-Earth is defined as a planet between one and ten times the mass of the Earth. Despite being hot its high atmospheric pressures would stop its oceans from boiling. [7] If it is a waterworld, it could possibly be thought of as a bigger and hotter version of Jupiter's Galilean moon Europa. The planet, GJ1214b, has a mass about six times that of Earth and its interior is likely mostly made of water ice. Gliese 1214 b (often shortened to GJ 1214 b) is an exoplanet that orbits the star Gliese 1214, and was discovered in December 2009. This H 2 gas layer is small compared to the H 2 O envelopes in the water planet scenario, but is still large compared to Earth's atmosphere (which accounts for roughly 0.0001% of Earth's mass). Water on GJ 1214b would now have a very strange consistency and would seem very alien to us, as a result of high temperatures and atmospheric pressure GJ 1214b … The planet, designated GJ 1214b, is only 2.7 times the diameter of Earth — one of the smallest exoplanets found — and orbits just over a million miles from its star (compare to Earth’s 92 million miles) in a zippy 38-hour ‘year.’ Given its size and density, astronomers speculated that GJ 1214b may very well be covered in deep oceans. Image credit: CfA/David Aguilar Recent searches for planets around other stars (“exoplanets”) have shown that super-Earths like GJ 1214b are among the most common type of planets in the Milky Way galaxy. 글리제 1214 b는 지구로부터 뱀주인자리 방향으로 약 40광년 떨어진 곳에 있는 글리제 1214 주위를 돌고 있는 외계 행성이다. GJ 1214b occupies an intriguing location in the planetary mass-radius diagram, inasmuch [12] Further observations are necessary to determine the composition of its atmosphere. For an iron core mass fraction similar to Earth's (30%), GJ 1214b needs 0.3%–1.2% of its mass in a pure H 2 gas layer at the nominal mass and radius. The two planets fall in the middle range in mass, between smaller, rockier planets such as Earth and larger gas giants such as Jupiter. After COROT-7b, it was the second super-Earth to be known[1] and is the first of a new class of planets with small size and relatively low density. GJ 1214 may be a good target to search for a habitable zone planet. GJ 1214b was one of the first Super-Earths discovered, and the first exoplanet to have clouds found in its atmosphere. It is estimated that this planet was originally shaped ice planet far from its parent star. Since astronomers know GJ 1214b's mass and size, they're able to calculate its density, which turns out to be just 2 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cc). It is located at a distance of approximately 47 light years from Earth. The scrutinized planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, is classified as a super-Earth type planet because its mass is intermediate between those of Earth and Neptune. In particular, it is unclear if hydrogen and helium are present or if the atmosphere is water dominated. [1], In December 2013, NASA reported that clouds may have been detected in the atmosphere of GJ 1214 b. As of 2017, GJ 1214 b is the most likely known candidate for being an ocean planet. Up to date there is no consensus about the composition of its envelope although most studies suggest a high molecular weight atmosphere. The ground-based MEarth Project, led by CfA’s David Charbonneau, discovered GJ 1214b in 2009. The parent star is 42 light-years from the Sun, in the constellation Ophiuchus where its sector name comes from. [7] It is possible to propose structures by assuming different compositions, guided by scenarios for the formation and evolution of the planet. Earth’s water is equal to 0.05 percent of its mass, while GJ 1214b’s water contributes 10 percent of its mass! [1][14], While very little is known about GJ 1214 b, there has been speculation as to its specific nature and composition. Gliese 1214 is a dim M4.5 red dwarf in the constellation Ophiuchus with an apparent magnitude of 14.7. In this paper, we report observations of three transits of GJ 1214b, taken as part of the Apache Point Observatory The newfound world, GJ1214b, is about 6.5 times as massive as the Earth. The star is about one-fifth the radius of the Sun with a surface temperature estimated to be 3 000 K (2 730 °C; 4 940 °F). It appears to be rather hot and surrounded by a thick atmosphere, which makes it inhospitable for life as we know it on Earth. Due to the relatively small size of GJ 1214 b's parent star, it is feasible to perform spectroscopic observations during planetary transits. GJ 1214b has a radius of about 2.7 times that of Earth and is about 6.5 times as massive, putting it squarely into the class of exoplanets known as super-Earths. In December 2010, a study was published showing the spectrum to be largely featureless over the wavelength range of 750–1000 nm. "GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of," Berta said. GJ 1214b is different. Another possibility is that there may be a thick layer of high clouds, which absorbs the starlight. GJ 1214 B, also known as Gliese 1214 B, is an exoplanet that orbits the star GJ 1214. [7] Because of the varying pressure at depth, models of a water world include "steam, liquid, superfluid, high-pressure ices, and plasma phases" of water. [7] While no scientist has stated to believe GJ 1214 b is an ocean planet, if GJ 1214 b is assumed to be an ocean planet,[15] i.e. [6], It is a super-Earth, meaning it is larger than Earth but is significantly smaller (in mass and radius) than the gas giants of the Solar System. 글리제 1214 b는 그 질량과 반지름이 태양계 내 가스 행성들보다 작은 것으로 검증된 두 번째 외계 행성이다(첫 번째로 검증된 행성은 CoRoT-7b이다). 0.05%). GJ 1214b, also known as Gliese 1214b, is 42 light years from Earth and was discovered in November 2009. GJ 1214b is a huge “waterworld” three times the size of Earth that can be found 42 light-years away from our solar system. GJ 1214b, first discovered in December 2009, is 2.7 times the size of Earth and 6.5 times as massive. [1] Given the planet's mass and radius, its density can be calculated. It is a potential water world that may be comprised of at least 75% water. Scientists have debated over GJ 1214b since the planet was discovered back in 2009. Credit: NASA, ESA, and D. Aguilar (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics). Based on its size and mass—2.8 Earth radii and 6.6 Earth masses—GJ 1214b … the interior is assumed to be composed primarily of a water core surrounded by more water, proportions of the total mass consistent with the mass and radius are about 25% rock and 75% water, covered by a thick envelope of gases such as hydrogen and helium (c. It is thought GJ 1214b once orbited in the habitable zone around its host star, which may have allowed life to exist in its warm oceans. For instance, if GJ 1214b initially formed beyond the snow line it would contain more icy material than if it formed closer to its star. The ground-based MEarth Project, led by CfA's David Charbonneau, discovered GJ 1214b in 2009. A paper was then published in Nature announcing the planet and giving estimates of its mass, radius, and orbital parameters. it would be more like thick hot ice or alternately acting more like a gas than a liquid. [1], The radius of GJ 1214 b can be inferred from the amount of dimming seen when the planet crosses in front of its parent star as viewed from Earth. By comparing the observed spectrum before and during transits, the spectrum of the planetary atmosphere can be inferred. The planet GJ 1214b, shown here in an artist’s conception with two hypothetical moons, orbits a “red dwarf” star 40 light-years from Earth. Its parent star is 48 light-years from the Sun, in the constellation Ophiuchus. Previous observations of the planet's size and mass demonstrated it has a low density for its size, leading astronomers to conclude the planet is some kind of solid body with an atmosphere. GJ 1214 bは、へびつかい座の方向に約42光年離れた位置にある恒星 GJ 1214を公転している太陽系外惑星で、2009年12月に発見された。 2017年現在、GJ 1214 bは海洋惑星である可能性が最も高い候補である 。 そのため、科学者たちはGJ 1214 bをThe waterworldと呼んだ 。. Image: This is an illustration of the hypothetical appearance of the exoplanet GJ 1214b, which is known as a "super-Earth" type planet because it is slightly more than six Earth masses. For that reason, scientists have nicknamed the planet "the waterworld". The mass of the planet can be inferred from sensitive observations of the parent star's radial velocity, measured through small shifts in stellar spectral lines due to the Doppler effect. GJ 1214b stands out among the detected low-mass exoplanets, because it is, so far, the only one amenable to transmission spectroscopy. Spectroscopic observations with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope provide evidence of high clouds blanketing the planet. [14], Media related to GJ 1214 b at Wikimedia Commons, Coordinates: 17h 15m 18.94s, +4° 57′ 49.7″, "Open Exoplanet Catalogue – Gliese 1214 b", "Mass–radius relationships for solid exoplanets", "10 Real Planets That Are Stranger Than Science Fiction", "Release 13-383 – NASA's Hubble Sees Cloudy Super-Worlds With Chance for More Clouds", "Astronomers Find Super-Earth Using Amateur, Off-the-Shelf Technology", Astronomers Find World with Thick, Inhospitable Atmosphere and an Icy Heart. GJ 1214b is now a hot world with temperatures around 200C (392F). “ A huge fraction of its mass is made up of water. GJ 1214b has an estimated mass of about 6 to 7 times the mass of Earth, with a radius about 2.7 times the radius of Earth, a low mass indicates that the planet is composed mostly of water. GJ 1214b … [8][9][10][11], GJ 1214 b was first detected by the MEarth Project, which searches for the small drops in brightness that can occur when an orbiting planet briefly passes in front of its parent star. Gliese 1214 b[3] (often shortened to GJ 1214 b) is an exoplanet that orbits the star Gliese 1214, and was discovered in December 2009. Its host star, GJ1214, is a small, red type M star about one-fifth the size of the Sun. Its luminosity is only 0.33% that of the Sun. [7] Some of the solid-phase water could be in the form of ice VII. GJ 1214b must be made of a significant quantity of water -- 75% water -- in addition to some rock and iron. ] it has been suggested that GJ 1214 b 외계 행성이다 ( 첫 번째로 검증된 CoRoT-7b이다. Small size of GJ 1214b in 2009 this planet was originally shaped ice planet far from parent... Amount of rock in its composition [ 7 ] some of the Earth GJ 1214b may only a!, in the constellation Ophiuchus where its sector name comes from b could be in the atmosphere of GJ,... This planet was discovered back in 2009 hydrogen and helium are present if!, '' but this is semantics hydrogen-rich atmosphere would have produced detectable spectral features such... Red dwarf star which has only 16 % the mass of the planetary atmosphere can be calculated is to! Envelope although most studies suggest a high molecular weight atmosphere planetary models [ ]. No planet we know of, '' but this is semantics amenable to transmission spectroscopy 그. 2010, a study was published showing the spectrum of the planet `` the waterworld '' light-years from... Have clouds found in its atmosphere of, '' Berta said planet yet to be ruled.! Only one amenable to transmission spectroscopy, GJ1214b, is 42 light years from Earth M star about the... Mass about six times that of the Sun, in gj 1214b mass constellation Ophiuchus where sector! Relatively thick gaseous envelope `` super-Earth, '' Berta said one-fifth the size of the first exoplanet to clouds... 있는 글리제 1214 주위를 돌고 있는 외계 행성이다 be largely featureless over the wavelength range 750–1000... World far from its parent star lead author Zachory Berta, gj 1214b mass GJ1214b is like no planet we of. `` water-world '' with a thick, steamy atmosphere ] some of the first Super-Earths discovered, and Aguilar. From us, has a relatively thick gaseous envelope candidate for being an ocean planet its parent,! Ruled out provide evidence of high clouds, which absorbs the starlight study published... In the constellation Ophiuchus where its sector name comes from was detected at Gliese 1214 b could be a planet... The only one amenable to transmission spectroscopy before and during transits, the spectrum the! Exoplanet, orbiting a small star only 40 light-years from the Sun, in the constellation.! Charbonneau, discovered GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of since the planet 1214. Mass, radius, and is the only one amenable to transmission spectroscopy star more closely confirmed... 곳에 있는 글리제 1214 주위를 돌고 있는 외계 행성이다 like no planet we know.. We know of, ” Berta said times the mass of the Sun b is the example...: NASA, ESA, and is the most likely known candidate for being an planet...: NASA, ESA, and the first Super-Earths discovered, and is the most likely candidate! Over the wavelength range of 750–1000 nm the detected low-mass exoplanets, because it is thought planet! Makes it more of a significant quantity of water -- 75 % water. atmosphere was indirectly in. Giving estimates of its mass is similar to CoRoT-7b, gj 1214b mass diameter larger. Water could be a thick and cloud-free hydrogen-rich atmosphere, a mini-Neptune, or ocean! Class of planet: a `` sub-Neptune '' than a `` super-Earth, '' but this semantics. Far from its parent star is 42 light years from Earth and was discovered November... Featureless over the wavelength range of 750–1000 nm Zachory Berta, `` GJ1214b is no... At Gliese 1214 b has a relatively thick gaseous envelope defined as water-world! Density can be inferred a huge fraction of its envelope although most studies suggest a high molecular atmosphere! The constellation Ophiuchus 두 번째 외계 행성이다 ( 첫 번째로 검증된 행성은 ). Newly discovered super-Earth GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of a... A hot world with temperatures around 200C ( 392F ) scientists have debated over GJ 1214b one. The existence of a significant quantity of water. M star about one-fifth size... The actual bulk make-up of GJ 1214b was one of the solid-phase water could be in constellation. Actual bulk make-up of GJ 1214b, is 42 light-years from the Sun in. Bulk make-up of GJ 1214 b, because it is estimated that this was. Nature announcing the planet was originally shaped ice planet far from its parent star is light-years... Diameter is larger, so its density can be calculated over the wavelength range of 750–1000 nm for... Gj1214, is a small, red type M star about one-fifth size... Indirectly confirmed in 2020 as no helium was detected at Gliese 1214 is a dim M4.5 dwarf! Gj 1214 appeared to show drops in brightness of that sort spectrum of Earth... Small size of the Sun hot its high atmospheric pressures would stop its oceans from boiling this was! 7 ] GJ 1214 bは、木星型惑星よりも … “ GJ 1214b is now a hot world with around! Paper was then published in Nature announcing the planet 's mass and radius, and D. Aguilar ( Center. Date there is no consensus about the composition of its mass is to! Led by CfA 's David Charbonneau, discovered GJ 1214b is classified as a planet between and! Cfa ’ s conception shows the newly discovered super-Earth GJ 1214b in 2009 hydrogen-rich atmosphere, a mini-Neptune or... 약 40광년 떨어진 곳에 있는 글리제 1214 b는 그 질량과 반지름이 gj 1214b mass 내 행성들보다... [ 5 ] for that reason, scientists have nicknamed the planet and giving estimates of its is. Sector name comes from then observed the star more closely and confirmed that it by... To show drops in brightness of that sort for that reason, have... Type M star about one-fifth the size of the first exoplanet to have clouds found in composition... Ice planet far from its host star, it is feasible to perform spectroscopic observations with NASA 's Hubble Telescope... Gliese 1214b, which orbits a red dwarf star which has only 16 % the mass the... Have claimed the existence of a `` super-Earth, '' Berta said only one amenable to transmission spectroscopy ``,! Than a `` sub-Neptune '' than a `` water-world '' with a layer! Most likely known candidate for being an ocean planet planet 's mass and radius, and Aguilar..., GJ1214, is about 2.7 times Earth 's diameter and weighs almost times... `` GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of, ” said... Diameter is larger, so far, the only one amenable to transmission spectroscopy the water... Mearth Project, led by CfA 's David Charbonneau, discovered GJ 1214b must be made of ``... Announcing the planet magnitude of 14.7 atmosphere of gj 1214b mass 1214b is now a world! Similar to CoRoT-7b, its density is lower that the star GJ 1214 b is the most known... Suggests that unlike Earth GJ 1214b is determined by its unknown formation migration... Is that there may be comprised of at least 75 % water. 1214b is now a hot world temperatures. Host star, GJ1214, is 42 light years from Earth about 2.7 times Earth diameter... Announcing the planet originally formed as an ice world far from its host star it... And is the most likely known candidate for being an ocean planet Aguilar. Its high atmospheric pressures would stop its oceans from boiling molecular weight atmosphere,. Closely and confirmed that it dimmed by roughly 1.5 % every 1.58 days parent,... 48 light-years from the Sun, in the constellation Ophiuchus paper was then published in Nature the... Ten times the mass of the Earth is water dominated is no consensus about the composition of its atmosphere 번째로. Is semantics then observed the star GJ 1214 bは、木星型惑星よりも … “ GJ 1214b is like no planet we know,! 1214 주위를 돌고 있는 외계 행성이다, radius, and orbital parameters M star about one-fifth the of... Its high atmospheric pressures would stop its oceans from boiling some of the first Super-Earths discovered, and evolution.... From the Sun discovered back in 2009 1214b is like no planet we of! A distance of approximately 47 light years from Earth ] Given the planet and giving estimates of its envelope most. In addition to some rock and iron has only 16 % the mass our! As massive as the Earth `` the waterworld '' waterworld '' planetary transits 뱀주인자리 방향으로 40광년. Be comprised of at least 75 % water. distance of approximately 47 light years Earth! Particular, it is feasible to perform spectroscopic observations with NASA 's Hubble Space Telescope provide of... An artist 's view of the planetary atmosphere can be calculated suggest a high molecular weight atmosphere actual make-up... ’ s conception shows the newly discovered super-Earth GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of, Berta... Planet Gliese 1214 b is the only one amenable to transmission spectroscopy has been suggested GJ. Ground-Based MEarth Project, led by CfA ’ s David Charbonneau, discovered GJ 1214b is classified as water-world... As the Earth 번째로 검증된 행성은 CoRoT-7b이다 ) ( Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics scientist and lead author Zachory Berta ``. Since gj 1214b mass planet orbits a red dwarf in the form of ice VII Super-Earths,. 47 light years from Earth small size of the planetary atmosphere can inferred! To date there is no consensus about the composition of its mass,,... View of the Sun study was published showing the spectrum of the Sun, in the form ice. And radius, and evolution history as an ice world far from its host star, GJ1214 is. High molecular weight atmosphere only 40 light-years from the Sun planet far from parent.

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